While the design and use of automotive fasteners may seem simple, proper installation actually involves many different factors. There are many nuances in the selection and application of fasteners that can make the difference between a well-built engine and a candidate for self-destruction.
The first thing to understand is that fasteners act much the same as a spring due to the physics of stretch and rebound. A stud or bolt must be stretched to produce clamping force. For example, a typical 3/8˝ connecting rod bolt will need to be stretched some .006˝ to provide 10,000 lbs. of force.